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Here we need only note that positive and negative emotions act as behavioral reinforcements. The pain caused by biting your tongue teaches you to chew carefully and avoid tissue damage. Bad tastes and bad smells reinforce the aversion to ingesting unhealthy foods. The pleasure caused by engaging in sex encourages procreation. The enjoyment of playing with our children, encourages parental investment and nurturing. Positive emotions encourage us to seek out states that increase our adaptive fitness. Negative emotions encourage us to avoid maladaptive states.

Recall that an expected stimulus is more accurately perceived when it is predictable. Accurate predictions help an organism to prepare to sidestep dangers and take advantage of opportunities. Since accurate predictions are of real benefit to an organism, it would be reasonable for psychological rewards and punishments to arise in response solely to the accuracy of the expectation. Following a snow storm, for example, I might predict that I will slip and fall on the sidewalk. In the event that I actually fall, the outcome will feel unpleasant, but the experience will be mixed with a certain satisfaction at having correctly anticipated the outcome. This fourth type of expection-related emotion might be dubbed the prediction response .

Psychological evidence in support of a prediction response is found in the work of Mandler (1975). The response is considered so important in the extant literature on expectation, that it is commonly referred to as the primary affect related to emotion (Olson, Roese Zanna, 1996). New Balance Mens M780V5 Running Shoe Silver/Blue Cjsk3Hed9t
Confirmation of expected outcomes generally induces a positive emotional response even if the expected outcome is bad. It is as though brains know not to shoot the messenger: accurate expectations are to be valued (and rewarded) even when the news is not good. That is, a person might experience a positive prediction response and a negative outcome response at the same time.

In summary, we have distinguished four different types of expectation-related emotions. Each type serves a different biological function. The purpose of imaginative responses is to motivate an organism to behave in ways that may maximize future benefits. The purpose of the tension response is to tailor arousal and attention to match the level of uncertainty and importance of the outcome. The purpose of the outcome response is the often-noted goal of all emotions: to provide positive and negative reinforcements related to the biological value of different states. The purpose of the prediction response is to provide positive or negative reinforcements related to forming accurate expectations. All of these goals are biologically valuable.

Informally, we might characterize the "feeling" components to these responses by posing four questions:

As noted earlier, predicting a future event actually entails two predictions: the what and the when . The predictability of the what and when can be entirely independent. In musical rhythms, for example, listeners can form a strong expectation that some sound will happen at a particular moment, even though they have little inkling of what sound will occur. In other circumstances, the listener will have a good idea of what to expect, but will be left wondering when the sound will happen.

Demographic information, psychological questionnaires, baseline expectation for pain, and thermal pain sensitivity measures were collected prior to random assignment of the studied intervention.

Quantitative sensory testing (QST) was performed using the Medoc Neurosensory Analyzer (TSA- 2001, Ramat Yishai, Israel) with hand- held peltier- element- based stimulator. Participants first underwent a practice session in order to familiarize themselves with the pain testing protocol. Participants then underwent the full QST following a previously established protocol to measure c- fiber mediated pain [ 43 , SLR Brands Mens Flip Flops Rubber Thong Flip Flop Shower Sandal For Men Navy WPZutICaW
]. Briefly, c-fiber mediated pain was assessed on the plantar surface of the non- dominant foot using a train of ten consecutive heat pulses of less than one second duration at an inter- stimulus frequently of .33 Hz (temporal summation). The baseline temperature of each pulse was 35°C and temperature peaked at 51°C. Subjects were asked to rate their delayed (second) pain using a NRS. We used the same protocol to assess pain perception in the low back with the stimulator placed above the posterior superior iliac spine on the non- dominant side; however, in a previous pilot study, we found that subjects were unable to differentiate Aδ and c- fiber mediated pain in the low back [ Prada Mens 4E2996 Leather Sneaker SlOr5F
]. Subsequently, while allowing inferences regarding pain perception following SMT, we are unable to attribute the findings in the low back specifically to c- fiber mediated pain. We chose to investigate both the lower extremity and the low back in this study due to prior studies having noted a region specific influence of non- specific effects. For example, a placebo provided with expectation of relieving experimental pain in the hand has been found to exert an effect localized to that hand, without change in pain perception in the other hand or either foot [ 45 ]. Our instructional set and the SMT used in this study were specific to the low back. We felt the region specific nature of the instructional set and the SMT technique might localize the influence of non- specific effects associated with SMT to the low back. Including both anatomical areas in our QST protocol allowed us to test the specificity of our instruction set in our data analysis.

Immediately following the practice session, participants were asked to quantify the amount of pain they expected to feel during the QST in both their back and lower extremity using separate numeric rating scales (NRS). These ratings served as the baseline expectation for pain. Following initial QST, participants were randomly assigned to receive a positive, a negative, or a neutral expectation instructional set.

Participants in the positive expectation group were told the SMT; "."

Participants in the negative expectation group were told the SMT; "."

Participants in the neutral expectation group were told the SMT; "."

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